The present district of Buxar
consists of areas under Buxar Sadar and Dumraon Sub-Division of the old
Bhojpur district and came in existence in the year 1991. Buxar town is
the headquarter of the district and also its principal town. The
district is bounded on the north by Ballia district of U.P., on the
south by Rohtas district, on the west by Ghazipur and Ballia districts
of U.P. and on the east by Bhojpur district.
district consist of 2 Sub-division and 11 Blocks. Of the 11 Blocks, 7
are in Dumraon Sub-division while 4 in Buxar Sadar Sub-division. A town
is located each in Buxar and Dumraon Sub-division. All the blocks and
the towns of the district are distributed within the Sub-division as
Name of Sub-division
Name of Blocks
Name of Towns
consist of two Sub-divisions viz. Buxar Sadar and Dumraon stretching over an
area of 1,62,380 hectares. The entire strip of land between the river Ganges on
the north and the main line of the Eastern Railways on the South, is a low lying
alluvial place. The region is considered to be the best wheat growing area in
the the State.
The Ganges forms the
northern boundary of the district. The river Karmansa joins the Ganges near
The climate of the
district is moderate. The hot weather begins from the middle of March when hot
westerly winds begin to blow during the day. The months of April and May are
extremely hot, normally the monsoon sets in by the third week of June and
continues with intermission till the end of September. The cold weather begins
from the months of November and lasts till the beginning of March, January is
the coldest month when the temperature comes down as low as
10˚ C. From the month of April, till the break of monsoon, the district
experiences occasional thunder storms also.
Rain sets sometimes in June accompanied by fall in
temperature and increase in humidity. The district experiences maximum rain
during the months of July and August. There is slight rainfall in October but
November and December are quite dry.
Due to deforestation, the forest area of this district is
very thin. Some commom trees of this district are Mango, Seasum, Mahua, Bamboo
and some types of long grasses (Jhalas) are found near diara area of the river
Ganga. Jhalas grass is mostly used in roat making of kuccha houses.
The forest of the district are not rich in their products. Fire wood is the most
important among its products.
The district had variety of wild animals and game birds when the forest were
thick. With the increase in irrigation facilities, the area under cultivation
has grown, consequently diminishing the forest. The wild animals have suffered
in the process and their number has gone down very considerably. Neelgain,
spotted deer, are found in the Plains and near the Ganga bank. A considerable
number of monkeys are also found in the Buxar Town area.
Birds of different types like Parrot, Patridges, Quails are also found in
The river Sone and Ganges are the perennial source of surface water. They can
provide irrigation to major portion of agricultural land. In the pre Zamindari
abolition days the zamindars used to maintain hars and pynes which served the
purpose of both irrigation and drainage.
The district Gazetteer of Shahabad (1966) mention as follows:-
The agricultural prosperity of the district depends on artificial irrigation
without which may tracts would be uncultivated and the land would be unable to
grow sufficient food crops to sustain its population. The three great sources of
irrigation were artificial reservoirs, wells and Sone Canal, all of which helped
to supplement the natural supply of water and to compensate for its inadequacy
or untimely distribution. Ahars are artificial reservoirs meant to collect the
rain water. These long shallow tanks where protected by small embankments and
served as artificial catchment basin for receiving the water coming down from
the adjacent lands. From the ahars, water channels (pines) are connected. The
maintenance of the pines was the responsibility of the landlords.
The swoons of artificial irrigation mentioned so far however are of minor
importance as compared to the Sone Canal system which has been the most
important source of irrigation in the district.
LAND USE PATTERNS
In this district both the irrigated and non-irrigated areas are being exploited
for cultivation purpose. Even some of the large ponds (Jhils) like one at
Dumraon which was a duck shooting area have been put to use for cultivation
Rice, wheat, grams and pluses are the main crops of the district: in some areas
near, old Bhojpur vegetables are abundantly grown. These crops and vegetables
are transported to other districts. The straw is used as fodder and for rooting
MINES AND MINERALS
The mineral resources of this district is negligible.
There are however different types of small scale and
cottage industries located in this district of Buxar, the details of which have
been given below::
1. Soap Industry: It is mainly
concentrated in Buxar and Dumraon.
2. Timber and Furniture works: It is
located at Buxar and Dumraon.
3. Leather Industry: There are
individual leather workers all over the district. There is a concentration of
them at Khilafatpur village in Buxar Sadar Sub-division who are engaged in shoe
making. There is shoe making centre in the village which has also been receiving
help from the industries department.
The district of Buxar has large majority of the people
engaged in agricultural pursuits and deriving their livelihood from agricultural
pursuits. The possession of livestock generally adds to the social status of the
farmer. The quality of the live stock has improved because of serious efforts by
the Government and the response of the farmers. Since the district has quite a
large population of prosperous agriculturists mostly due to the suitability of
facilities of canal irrigation the farmers of the canal irrigated area have
considerably cattle wealth. Agricultural census conducted taken in 1991 shows
the cattle wealth of the district as: Cow-184325, Sheep-15430, Horse-3341,
Camel-15, Buffalo-114112, Goat-82186, Mula-240, Ass-1646, Pig-13235,
The district has been fairly rich in road communication
for a longtime. Francis Buchhunan has mentioned in Buxar Journal that there are
some very good roads in the district. He travelled by a very good road with
brick bridges from Koilwar to Buxar. He also mentioned a few other good roads
viz. the great road to Buxar, the Varanasi road to Sasaram and the great road to
Dumraon-Patna-Arrah-Buxar road, Behiya-Piro road, Dumraon-Nasriganj road,
Sasaram-Bikramganj-Arrah road as also worth mentioning.
Buxar, the district headquarters is on the the main line of the Eastern
The Ganges is navigable all the year round and goods are transported to Kolkatta
on the east and places in Uttar Pradesh on the west through the rivers.
The Central Co-operative Banks located in the important
towns of the district work as the pivot of Co-operative banking and credit. All
the Co-operative Societies are supposed to be affiliated to these banks for
credit facility/these banks finance Co-operative institutions which in turn pass
on the same to their members. Financing by these banks is restricted to short
term and medium term loans for agricultural purposes only. Short term loans are
advanced to agriculturist members to meet their needs of seeds, manures etc.
Medium term loans are advanced for purchase of live stock, agricultural
TRADE AND COMMERCE
The important wholesale markets in the district are at Buxar and Dumraon. The
main commodities exported from Buxar Railway Station are rice, paddy, gur,
mango, and the main imports are engineering goods, medicine etc.
Buxar is a district town and an important trade centre. It is also served by
railways, roadways and waterways. It is located on the bank of river Ganges and
the main trade of the town is grain, vegetables, fish and manufactured goods of
jail industry (Central Jail, Buxar manufactures, carperts etc.). There are also
a number of mandies and important marketing centres located at Arrah and Buxar.